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Gymnastics injuries: Compilation of the literature

The American women's gymnastics team's success, despite several injuries, in the Olympics may once again ignite debate over whether gymnasts are pushed too far and what damage their young bodies are sustaining. At the same time, the team's success could prompt a new generation of young girls to start taking gymnastics lessons.

Read what studies and literature reviews have found about gymnastics injuries with this compilation of articles about the subject. These articles may point you toward good sources for stories.

Gymnastics-related injuries to children treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1990-2005.
Singh S, Smith GA, Fields SK, McKenzie LB.
Pediatrics. 2008 Apr;121(4):e954-60.
PMID: 18381523

Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's gymnastics injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004.
Marshall SW, Covassin T, Dick R, Nassar LG, Agel J.
J Athl Train. 2007 Apr-Jun;42(2):234-40.
PMID: 17710171

Injury incidence, mechanism and diagnosis in top-level teamgym: a prospective study conducted over one season.
Harringe ML, Renström P, Werner S.
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007 Apr;17(2):115-9.
PMID: 17394471

Incidence and distribution of pediatric sport-related injuries.
Caine D, Caine C, Maffulli N.
Clin J Sport Med. 2006 Nov;16(6):500-13. Review.
PMID: 17119363

Gymnastics injuries.
Caine DJ, Nassar L.
Med Sport Sci. 2005;48:18-58. Review.
PMID: 16247252

Does gymnastics training inhibit growth of females?
Caine D, Lewis R, O'Connor P, Howe W, Bass S.
Clin J Sport Med. 2001 Oct;11(4):260-70. Review.
PMID: 11753064

Balancing the risk of injury to gymnasts: how effective are the counter measures?
Daly RM, Bass SL, Finch CF.
Br J Sports Med. 2001 Feb;35(1):8-18; quiz 19. Review.
PMID: 11157456

Does repetitive physical loading inhibit radial growth in female gymnasts?
Caine D, Howe W, Ross W, Bergman G.
Clin J Sport Med. 1997 Oct;7(4):302-8. Review.
PMID: 9397328

[Sports medicine aspects of gymnastics]
Konrad G, Pförringer W.
Sportverletz Sportschaden. 1997 Mar;11(1):35-7. German.
PMID: 9213944

Gymnastic injuries.
Meeusen R, Borms J.
Sports Med. 1992 May;13(5):337-56. Review.
PMID: 1565928

Injury patterns of female competitive club gymnasts.
Lindner KJ, Caine DJ.
Can J Sport Sci. 1990 Dec;15(4):254-61.
PMID: 2125528

An epidemiologic investigation of injuries affecting young competitive female gymnasts.
Caine D, Cochrane B, Caine C, Zemper E.
Am J Sports Med. 1989 Nov-Dec;17(6):811-20. Review.
PMID: 2696378

Epidemiology of women's gymnastics injuries.
Garrick JG, Requa RK.
Am J Sports Med. 1980 Jul-Aug;8(4):261-4.
PMID: 7396056