GAO: Enforcement doesn't deter some nursing homes from repeatedly harming patients
In 1998 and 1999 reports, GAO concluded that enforcement actions were ineffective in encouraging nursing homes to maintain compliance with federal quality requirements: Sanctions were often rescinded before being implemented because homes had a grace period to correct deficiencies. In response, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) began requiring immediate sanctions for homes that repeatedly harmed residents.
Using CMS enforcement and deficiency data, GAO (1) analyzed federal sanctions from fiscal years 2000 through 2005 against 63 homes previously reviewed and (2) assessed CMS’s overall management of enforcement. The 63 homes had a history of harming residents and were located in 4 states that account for about 22 percent of homes nationwide.
From fiscal years 2000 through 2005, the number of sanctions decreased for the 63 nursing homes GAO reviewed that had a history of serious quality problems, a decline consistent with nationwide trends. While the decline may reflect improved quality or changes to enforcement policy, it may also mask survey weaknesses that understate quality problems, an issue GAO has reported on since 1998.
Although the number of sanctions decreased, the homes generally were cited for more deficiencies that caused harm to residents than other homes in their states. Almost half of the homes reviewed continued to cycle in and out of compliance; 19 did so 4 times or more. These homes temporarily corrected deficiencies and, even with sanctions, were again found out of compliance on subsequent surveys. Several weaknesses appeared to undermine the effectiveness of the sanctions implemented against the homes reviewed.